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I 1 iL RMl ILl 9 L'^'^y^v^ FOR INSTRUCTION IN THE AET AlB SCIMCE «^ 6AEME3ST CHTTIIG, FOR ALL THE viiii^iis i^oMMSoFTii vmm MQi H i\( W) BY A^XJG^XJSTXJS KOCH. iLLUSirr^ATED BY 'r W E L V E PLATES OF FINELY ENGRAYED DIAGRAMS AND FIGURES, WITH FULL INSTRi:CTIONS FOR DRAFTING THE VARIOUS STYLES OF COATS, AND VESTS. POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 18 8 3. n^ V - Ill «f r] a li A FOR INSTRUCTION IN THE AET MB SCIEIGE «p fiAllillT CIITTII6, FOR ALL Tl]e Yarious Forms of tl]e ^umai] Body. BY ^TJGMJSTXJS KOCH, ILLUSTI^AIIIED BY FIFTEEN PLATES OF FINELY ENGRAYED DIAGRAMS AND FIGURES, WITH FULL INSTRUCTIONS FOR DRAFTING THE VARIOUS STYLES OF COATS, VESTS AND PANTS. POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y 18 8 3. Entered according to Act of Congress in the yeaF 1883, by alTtUstus Kocn, In tlie office of the Librarian of Congress at Wasiiington, D. C. ' ']^W rii ^)Mt», Tins IMPOVED voLUMF,, wliicli is introduced by these few lines, is in reality tlie Second Edition of tlje Author" s celebrated System pulished in 1876, then entitled " The Cutters'' Centennial Guide," which is so extensively and successfully used in almost every State of the Union. This Volume, therefore, is intended to unfold the NEW DiscovEKiES and improvements since then made, in as finely illustrated fashion as the subject will permit or the Author can present it. That a new departure and radical changes are disseminated in the professional Art of Cutting, need not be argued at this time, for the present work will bear the scrutinizing eye of the candid artist, who will find unfolded to his untiring vision the most scientific Peoblem ever devel- oped by any author of systems of Garment Cut- ting. In this Volume will be found the grand com- bination of the two great principles upon which true Garment Cutting is founded, which are Simplification and Accuracy ; and the ground PLAN underlying these principles comprises Ac- tual Measurement and Direct Application of the measures to the Draft as taken from the Body. The wonderful invention by the Author of the ONE GRAND NEW MEASURE Called " SllOUldcr Regulator," and its direct application to the draft as taken from the Body — in connection with tJiree other measures (Front, Back and Waist Balance,) which are all taken from one iwint, — never fail, if correctly taken, to produce a well-fitting garment, and accomplish the good result for all the various forms of the human body. The Work is original in all the general details introduced, both in the Description given, and in the accomiianying fifteen Plates of Illustration. The two Figures show the different points and application of the tape-measure ; the Dia- grams the drafting ; and the Description ex- plains the whole in a clear and thorough man- ner, so that any Cutter of ordinary talent can use the System at once, and with full success. And, furthermore, the young man who does not understand Cutting at all, can learn it easily from the instruction given in the book, without a personal instructor or teacher. The Author claims that he has brought out and developed, in condensed form, a true and re- liable WORK ON Garment Cutting, — as only STUDY' and experience can offer and produce. In conclusion, the Author advises all those who intend to study and jjractice these new principles to lay aside all prejudice and follow out the instruction as herein given ; and if you thus do, COMPLETE SUCCESS will foUow, and you will become a hearty indorser of this valuable Work. G^ivifJTrioN. To all nhoin it may concern : Notice is hereby given to all persons in whose hands a copy of this work may be placed, that the publisher is the sole proprietor and vender, according to the laws of the United States of America ; and any person or persons who attempt to publish, or have it published, in whole or in part, or teach others from the illustrations and instructions herein contained, will hold themselves liable to heavy penalties. And, further, it is understood that this work is not transferable to a third party without a written consent from the publisher, which consent will be attached to the work so transferred ; [and for any violation thereof, proceed^ ings will be commenced at once against all such offenders. THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. F^Fi^aa^ia^i!^ HiKa^s IX KEGAED TO Measurement and Position of the Customer. ]T[HE Measurement of Gakmejs'ts is a subject -A- wliicli brings before us an extensive sphere of imi^ortant matters on which a large volume might be written ; but it is not my intention to do so. The only desii-e that I have is, to impress the important subject, which is so worthy of study and consideration, on the mind of the Cut- ter who may use this System. I do not mean by this (or even attempt to do so,) to instruct the skilful Artist who has had many years of practi- cal experience in tlie profession of Cutting, — he knows all this. It is, therefore, not this class of men which I try to instruct, but it is the young, inexperienced Cutter for whom the subject is in- tended. We find many things in regard to measure- taking, which the Cutter may look upon as very triiling matters, — but nothing in relation to mea- surement is so trifling and insignificant as not to need full explanation. We will now begin, and show some of these trifling things, but which are sufficient to produce misfits and alterations whereby hundreds of dol- lars may be lost every year. The first one which we will mention is, talk- ing to the customer while tou are taking HIS measures. Let it be understood between you and your em- ployer, or whosoever takes down the measures, not to talk to the customer (if it can be avoided) while you are taking his measures. Nothing is more annoying to the Cutter and injurious to his work than this trifling matter. Now, should you want my reason for this, I will simply state : — when talking is going on, the customer will twist and move about, and consequently will get out of his natural position. The second hint is : that every Cutter, no mat- ter what system he may have, or use, should have his regular fixed points on the body, from which the tape measure has to be applied ; and so long as these points are correct once, and hold good in all cases and forms of the body, and the measures from those points will produce the cor- rect draft, he should stick close to them, and not jump from one experiment to anotlier. We find many Cutters who are like grasshoppers, jump- ing from one point to another — experimenting in a different measurement for every coat — and are never successful in cutting. The third practical hint is : We should take all the principal measures which are necessary to produce a correct draft for the form of body — but beyond this, all the proof or check mea- sures should be avoided. Those measures will do more harm than good to the Cutter. Fourth : All the necessary measures should l)e taken without instrument, and with tape only. It is a well known fact, that there are systems of garment cutting wherein an almost endless a- mount of measures have to be taken, and to pro- duce them the Cutter must use a measuring square or MEASURING MACHINE in wMch the cus- tomer is placed, like a horse in harness. Now, this is not alone the most disagreeable thing for customer and Cutter, but it is also the loorst thing ever invented, because more blunders are made with this class of instruments tlian we can imagine. The fifth practical hint is: That all these measures which may be necessary for any one system should be taken correctly and with utmost care, so that they will give the actual amount which the body calls for ; and in not doing so, we find the cause why some cutters will get in trouble more or less, and then discard their Sys- tem and fly to a new one. Now this is a great mistake : — failure and trouble must occur Avitli the best System, if a careless measurement is taken. It stands to reason that, should we make an error in the measurement, it is certain that the same error will be made in the draft. And, again, if we can expect a good fitting garment at all, it necessarily is because we have the correct mea- sure by which the good fitting garment is pro- duced. This is appliable to any one System which the Cutter may use. Sixth. To accomplish the good result, and to secure a correct measurement, — The only safe and sure plan is, that all the measures should be taken over the Vest. No doubt some Cutters will say, ' this is a very difficult matter to do.' Now every Cutter of experience must confess, that when the measures have to be taken over a bad-fitting Coat, it is the most difficult work that a cutter can un- dertake. If this is true, why, then, should the measures taken over the Vest be more difficult than otherwise? It is certainly as easy, if not more so, as any other plan in existence. THE CUTTER AX I) GUIDE. The measurement over the Vest has certain ad- vantages. Take, for instance, the Coat whicli is more or less wadded, yes, some, we must say, are stuffed out with wadding,— now, then, is it possi- ble for any one to ascertain the real amount which the Body actually calls for '. while, on the other hand, by taking the measures over the Vest, nothing will interfere, and we will have just so much — no more, no less. Again : Supposing the customer is one-sided, one shoulder lower than the other— it will not be noticed when the coat is on, because the shoulder is raised up with wadding so that it will appear level with the other. Now, if the customer does not caution the Cutter, he will discover the error when the garment is finished, and by the altera- tions which must follow ; while, by taking the measures over the Vest, we liave the whole form before us, and nothing will hide its defects from notice. These few remarks we deem sufficient to show the advantages of measuring without Squake and Coat. But there is another very important point that we must impress upon the mind of every Cutter, which is of like importance as the measurement itself, if not more so,— and this is: Before we can expect a correct measurement at all, it is ab- solutely necessary tliat the customer must stand in his NATURAL POSITION. \V(" can say from experience, tliat in a majority of cases, where customers come to the Cutter to have their measures taken, we will find "very few stooping or disj^roportioned men ; even the most stooping forms will stand straight, or nearly so. Now, should we establish our points and apply the tape measure to the form in such an unnatu- ral position, it is impossible that the garment would fit when they stand in their natural shape. The question may arise, how do we know if the customer is in his natural position? andif so, hoAv can we avoid it ? My ansAver to this question is, Take a "quiet survey" of yoiir customer as he enters your cutting room, and as he is looking at the fashion plate, or in any other way opportu- nity may offer ; and by doing so, you can judge very nearly of the figure you may have to clothe. Now, should he present himself to you in any other form when you are ready to establisli the points and take the measure, then talk to him and attract his attention to some other things, and you will soon find that he has come to terms — will show, perhaps, his round shoulders, and stand in his usual jiosition. Supposing, now, that this be the case, we then goon and mark our Points, as illustrated by Fio- ti:e 1 and Figi'ke 2. D LATE Illustration of Points and Measurement, Figure 1 and Figure 2. p^x THIS System we have only one point that m requires the plumb line, and this point we find by Eye measure. But as we desire that the location of this point sliaJl be fully understood by all who may use this Systinii, we will explain it with a ruler to the new Ijeginiu'r : Bring the Vest smoothly down to the body at the waist, and fasten it to the pants with a pin so it will stay in its place. Now take a short ruler, place it against the right front arm, let it r\in down in a plumb line, and di-aw a chalk maik at I), or waist, on the same side of ruler that rests on arm. Having this line, then draw a chalk mark crossways above the hip-boiic, in tlic most hollow i)art of the body, so that tiiese two marks will show thus -f , and we have point I), Fig- ure 2. Now make a maik Ifugthways iti centre of back, at neck, as at A, Fig. t. Then make a mark cro.ssways, at a point where the toj) of back shall join the collar, (say one inch below the top or crease of collar,) so that these marks will show thus +, and we have point A, Figure 1. Tiien make a clialk mark lengthways in centre of back, as at K, thence crossing at a i:)oint about one-third of top and bottom of arm, from bottom of arm up, and we have the point K, Fig. 1. It is a good plan, when the waist length is taken from A to B, to note the exact amount from A to K. Next, make a mark in centre of back at waist, and we have point E, Figure ]. Tliese four P( ints which we have now estab- lished will produce the Balance of the Coat, and thei'efore the Cuttei- should locate them with the greatest care. Having located those I'oints, we then go on to show THE MEASl REPEAT. Bring the tape on + A, Fig. 1: measure to K, (say THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 6i inches); let it nm down to B, for full length of waist, (say 18f inches), thence to C, full length of coat (say 38 inches). These three measures may be taken before your customer has laid off his coat ; and those not experienced in measuring over the vest may adopt that plan at the begin- ning, and thus make a gradual change if they deem it advisable to do so. Now place the tape measure on -|-, A,'_.Fig. 1, and measure from that jjoint, as follows : From A, down in back in a direct line to -|- I), Fig. 2, as line P, Fig. 1 indicates, (say \^\ inches), and we have the Back Balance measure. Bring the tape over the front shoulder, and measure from A, down in front of arm to -|-l),Fig.2,(say 20^ inches), and we have the Front Balance. Extend the tape measure to I, or hand, for full length of sleeve, (say 31i inches). Note : The measure for sleeve length may be taken in another form, as follows : Raise the arm in horizontal line with the body, have the elbow slightly bent. Then measure from centre of back to elbow, (say 20 inches), then to the hand, full length of sleeve, (say 32^ inches). We leave this for the Cutter to decide which measure he will adopt. Having the tape measure yet in fiont of arm as before stated, then measure from A, down in front of the arm, bring the tape around under the arm in a close-litting manner, (close, but not tight), then up to the starting jioint A, as indicated by line Gr, Figures 1 and 2, (say 264^ irrches"), and we have the Arm-depth measure. Now, let the tape measure rest in that position in front and under the arm, and bring the tape down on back to point K, as shown by Figure 1, (say 23i inches), and we have the Slioulder mea- sure. The Cutter will see l)y this, tliat all the above measures are taken from Point A, top of back, where the end of the tape is held with the left hand, and with the right hand we apply the tape to the different points. Now luring tlie tape measure down on + I), Fig, 2, and measure to E, centre of back, as shown on Fig. 1, (say7i inches), and we have the Back Waist measure. Let the tape measure rest on -\- T), Fig. 2, bi'ing the tape up in back of arm to top of shoulder, as shown by line H, Fig. 1 and 2, and then across the acromian process, or, in other words, one inch from the extreme end of shoulder point, in a smootli-fitting man- ner, then down in front of arm to the starting point -|- D, (say 31 inches), and we have the grand ritio measure called THE SHOriiDER RECil LATOR. Notj: : Before taking this measure, see that your customer's shoulder is down in natural po- sition, not raised or drawn back. Again, draw your measure close, but not tight, and shoiild correspond in closeness to Front and Back Bal- ance. Next apply the tape for Breast Measure, as shown by L, Figures 1 and 2. Bring the tape measure close up under the arms, then across the shoulder blades, and back again to the starting point, (say 36 inches). This measure should be taken quite snug, so that we may have the actual size of Breast. The next and last measure we now take is the Waist Measure, as shown by line M, Fig. 2. Bring the tape around the waist where the body is the smallest, and note the amount, (say 32 inches). This completes the measurement, summed up as follows : 6^ inches Point of shoulder measure. 18f "■ Full length of waist measure. 38 " Full length of coat. 19|- ■ " Back balance measure. 20| " Front balance 31^ '" Sleeve length 26i " Arm depth 23i '• Shoulder 7i •' Back waist " 31 " Shoulder Regulator measure. 36 " Breast measure. 32 " Waist '• THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. THE COAT SYSTEM. Plate 1 Diagram A. HOWING THE SrAFT OF A ©OUBLE-IrEASTED Jf ROCK loAT. Draw a line in centre ol' l)ack as from O to (). Square out at riglit anule from A to Y. ]k)lli of these lines are tlie oonstruction lines from which we ajtply tlie ineasure to complete the draft. The next point which we must now establish is line B, or front of arm scye, and this we do by the slionlder oneafnire, which calls for 23i inches in the measurement. Take this measure, divide it in two equal parts, and apply one-lialf, (llf inches), from A to B, and the correct point for the fi'ont of arm scye is established. (This point will lie more fully ex- plained below.) JSTow, square u]) from B to D, — which we will call line B. Next in order is the Front Balance measure, wdiich calls for 20^ inches. Take the amount and apply it from B to D. Square out to K, and the front length of the coat is established. Then apply the f3ack AVaist measui'e, 7^ inches, from A to E, and make a mark. Having- this, then draw a short line from B to F, which is in the direction to top of back. Now locate point F. Measure the distance from E to B, (4^ inches), divide this in six equal jiarts, and apply one part ({^ inches) from B toF. This one- sixth may be readily found as follows : if you have a division square, then measure the distance from E to B, with the division of 4ths, and what- ever the number may be in this (No. 17 in this case), take the same number in the division of 24tlis, and yciu \\ill ]ia\e the one-sixtli from B to F. Next in order is the Back i'alancc mcnsiirc Take this measure IDi inches, add one seam, and apply the amount fidiii F to II, and we Imve the correct length of back. Sipiare out fiom II to T. Having this, then locate ])oiiit K. Take the amount from A to 13, divide it in four ])arfs, and api)ly one-fourth, {21 inciies), fiom T) to K, and make a mark. Now proceed to locate line L. or bottom of arm scye. Take the aiiu ch^pth measure "JC)] inches, and ajiply one jialf of this measure [\'.\\ inches) from K to 8, and make a sweep line with yovir left thundj-nail. Then apply the same amount (13^ inches) from H to 3, and make a sweep line also, as shown in Diagram. Now place the s(piare on line ; let long arm of square rest on cros^;ing of sweep lines at 3, and in that posi- tion draw a line from L, through sweep to V, in front, and we have the bottcmi of arm scye. Having this, then we establish point J, and by this we find line C. Take one-third of A and B, (3J inches), and bring this from line B to J. Having this point, then api)ly f inch in all cases and sizes from J to C, and square line G up to & Now take one-half of B and C, (2^ inches), add one seam, and bring the amount from H to I — also from D to G. Square out from G to U. Next in order is line P, or point of back sleeve seam — place the ruler on crossing of B and L lines, let it rest on H, top of back, aard make a mark on line C, as at N. NcJw place the square on centre of back, and square out from P through N to M. Then mark width of back as at 1 and 2, (say | inch on each side of line P,) or any width ac- cording to fancjr or fashion, and draw line 1 and 2— mark out from 2, for pitch of back, say f inch more or less, according to the fashion of the day. Next a[)])ly the measure for length of waist from H to W, 18f inches. Square out from W to X. Mark up from I, f inch for spring of back. Having all these points, we are now prepared to tinish tile Back. Shape the centre line of back fiom L to AV. Mark width of back as from A to 4. Tlien comnience and shape the back: draw a line from II to maik above I, from I to 2, from 2 to ], and from i down through 4 to bottom, ac- coi'ding to fancy or fashion, and as shown in Di- agram A. Now locate })oint Q. I)ivi(h' tlie distance from L to P in four (>qual parts, antl bring one part from line L up to Q, which gives us the point for front of slee\-e seam. Next place the tape on point of side body as at 1, and make a sweep line PLATE II --1^ - See Dia0r G Plate Vll 3 1 PLATE, III. ^^\ THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 9 from bottom of inside seam of Ixick out to G, which line will give the length of side body. Place the rnler on i3oiut K and M, and draw a a line. Now locate point R. Measure the dis- tance from line B to C, (4f inches), divide this in three equal parts, and apply one-third, (If inch- es), from B to R, and we have the correct j)oint from which we apply the grand new measure called " The Shoulder Re!;ulator." This we hud calls for 31 inclies in the measure- ment. Now take the tape, place it on R, let it run ui) in a direct line to top of back shoulder seam at line C, (say 14^ inches,) bring the amount, whatever it may be, on R, and apply full length of measure, 31 inches, in a direct line up to S, and make a sweep line out from this point, as shown in Diagram, and we have the cor- rect point by which we draw our line for front shoulder seam. Now I must draw your attention to the i-emark which I have made when points 1 and 2 were loca- ted, as follows: "Mark width of back (say f inch) on each side of line P, or any width accord- ing to fancy or fashion. ' ' No doubt to the practi- cal Cutter this point is now clear why we have given the liberty of drawing the back shoulder seam higher, or lower, than f inch. Supposing we would mark line 2, one inch further up than in Diagram and as above stated, then dra*' our back shoulder seam by this line : Now apply your Shoulder Regulator measure from R, to top of shoulder at line C, and we have just the same amount more which we have marked up for line 2. Now place the amount on R, mark off 31 inches, up to S, and we find this point is just the same amount lower down ; and so vice versa. Therefore we say to the Cutter, suit yourself in regard to the shoulder drop of back, and have this point according to your taste or fancy, and the Slioulder Regulator measure will establish point S, accordingly. Having made this statement, we are I'eady to cut out the Back, and by doing so proceed and take lip — Plate Diagram B. In which we find the necessary instruction to finish the Draft. First, proceed and hnisli the front Shoulder. Take the back, bring it on top of front shoulder, let H rest on K and fasten the back at this point with a pin. Having done so, then shove the back in so that top of back will rest on K M line, and point 2, pitch of back, will be f inch above sweep line S ; and in that position draw a line liy back shoulder seam from K M line U) * centre of shoulder. Now place the pin at ■• and shove the back down so it will rest on sweep line S. Draw a line from * to pitch of back. Having this, let tlie l)ack remain in that position and shape the upi)er arm scye by back pitch down to Q to 3. Now take the back off and shape the shoulder of front part, from arm scye to * and from that point out to K M line, as shown in Diagram A. Next proceed and linish the side body and waist. Bring the back to point of side body, let line 1, front and liack meet, and fasten the back at this point with a pin. Having done so, then the next thing must be to find the correct round- ing of side body from 1 to line L, which will lie in harmony with the form of body for which the draft is made. Now to accomplish this to our en- tire satisfaction, we must apply the shoulder measure, which is the only true guide in this im- portant matter. Make a mark in centre of back 6 J inches below H, for point of shoulder measure. (See measurement. ) Then take the Shoulder measure, which calls for 23J inches, add f inch for seams in all cases, and apply the full amount, (24^ inches in this draft), as follows : — From K to Q, then around the front arm scye, in a smooth-fitting manner, to 3, and from 3 in a direct line to centre seam of back and mai'k made by 6^ inches ; shove the back in at bottom until this measure will rest on or meet this i^oint ; and when so, then draw a line from 1 to line L, alongside of the back, and we have the correct rounding for the form of the body. Now let the back remain in that position, and shape the arm scye from 1 to 3, as shown in Dia- gram. Having this, then place the pin close to the edge of inside line of back at L, and shove the back in below. Now take the Back Waist mea- sui'e, add 1\ inch in all cases to the measure, and bring the amount (8| inches in this case) from B to A, or centre of back, as shown in Diagram ; and in that position, draw a line from L to bottom of back, as shown by dotted line. Having this, then finish the side body by these lines : give a little more i-ounding at top, from 1 to L, and be- low L, hollow the side body a trifle to A line, 10 THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. and from there pive tlie neeessary sijring to 0, wliateA^er the foi'in may need, as sliovvn in Dia- grams B and A. Next, finisli the Waist j^art. Draw a line for width of side body, according to fancy or fashion, as from line L, to 7, tf) 9. Now we liave given 1\ inch more than back waisl measiire from B to A, — I inch of which is necessary for seams; the other half inch we takeout between side body and front part, as from 7 to S. Having this, then draw a corresponding line from L, througli 8, to bottom. Next establish the bottom line of side body. Bring the angle of s(|nare on 0, Diag. A ; let long arm of square rest on H, top of back, and draw a line from to 9, and by this shape the bottom line of side body. The next thing must be to apply the Breast measure. Close the back to side body, as in Dia- gram B. Measure out from L to T, one-half breast measure,18 inches— from T to V, 2* inches in all sizes. Square up from T to U. From U, draw a line to V. From U to Z, mark ^ inch more tlian one-sixth of breast, 3^ inches— from G to Z 2, (Diagram A), one-half the amount, If inches— and draw a line l)y these points, for depth of neck. Now place the back on toj) of shoulder point, as in Diagram B, and hnish the neck gorge as in Diagram. Next to this we apply the AVaist Meas- ure. You will remember that we have applied the back waist measure from B to A. Now bring the amount 7^ inches on line B, mark out to front, one-lialf waist, 10 inches, and allow one- half incli, or even one inch more for making uj), and we have point Y. Note :— The allowance at this i^oint depends entirely on the material, and also on the ease which the customer wishes. Now commence and finish the front. Draw a line from neck point to V, from V through Y to bottom. Then draw the bottom line; ccmimence one seam below the side body at 9, and stiike X in front, and as shown in Dia^■ram. Next finish the lapel. Draw a line from X to top — extend A and L line out. Mark width at toja (say 2\ inches), or fashion — at line L, (say 2f inches) at A line, (say 2i inches) — at bottom, (say 2 inches), finish the top according to the fashion of the day. Now proceed and draw the front line from top to bottom, and finish all the rest, as shown in Diagram A and B, and the draft for a double breasted coat is finished. But here I will say, In case the Cutter should be in doubt that he may not have applied the Shonlder Measure for the rounding of side body as it ought to be, and according to the explana- tion herein given, then he may i^rove its correct- ness by the Back Balance measure, as follows : Mark up from B, to * at F, (Diagram B), the same amount as w-e have taken out from 7 to 8, or i inch ; and from tliis apply the Back Balance, 19^ inches, uj) to H, and make a sweep line, as shown in Diagram B. Now, if the top of back will rest on this sweep line when brought in a joining i)Osition with side body, as in Diagram, then the application of the Shoulder Measure is correct. Now, as we have finished the draft, and are ready to cut the pattern out, let lis take the fol- loAving measures from the draft wdiile it is whole, and therefore it is more convenient to do so. First: Close the back and front shoulder at line S, as in Diagram B. Now, measure from N, or P line, around the upper arm scye to Q in front, in a close-fitting manner, and we will find 9 inches in this draft. Note the amount down. Next : ]\Ieasure from Q around the lower arm scye up to N, in back, (say 7f inches). Note the amount down. Then bring the tape on K, and measure to Q, (say llf inches). Note tliis down also. These three measures we will need when the draft of Sleeve is made, which we find in Plate YI, Diagrams E and F. Having these three measures, then cut the pat- tern out. HE I JrAFT of a flNGLE §REASTED foAT. state to (lie Nouiiu', inox- foi.t.owkd nv tiik. r I (li'cni it neccssaiy to state to (lie young, mex- | followjod by the cutteh. pei'ienced Cuttei-, that the Single P.reasted Coat [ Vuv a coat which shall roll down to the 2d but- is drafted in the same niannei' as the Double j ton at waist, and which is intended to button xip Breast<'il. willioul any cliaug.' wliati'vcr, except below,— We mark out from V (say 1^ inches) and whi'iv a certain aiuouul has to be at Y (say 1 inch) more or les.s, according to the the front, whi'iv a certain brought out from A' and Y. Now, in regard to the amouiil which is needed, no fixed quantity can be given, ami must be made according to the style oC fi-ont. We will there- fore give a guide onlv, which mav lie ease want(>d by the ciistomer. .\ coat with a short roll, and intended to but- ton \\\) vfiy high, — One inch is sufficient from V out ; and lielow this point the style and fashion will i-eiiuhite it. THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 11 Mesiiarksi on the above Draff. The Draft of Diagrams A and B is now finisli- '^d and thorouglily exj^Iained. Therefore, I deem it my dnty to state, that by this single draft the Cutter has (with only one exception, my whole System of the Coat Body. No mat- ter what shape or form he may have to deal with, or for which he may be called upon to pro- vide a covering, the principal part of drafting is for all alike. This one exception is, as we have alluded to in the commencement of the draft, by applying one-half of shoulder measure from A to B, or front of arm scye line, and will be fully explain- ed on this page, bearing title "The Shoulder Measure in connection with Front and Back Bal- ance." ©HE SHOULDEI^ fflEASUI^E, IN CONEECTION WITH FRONT AND BACK BALANCE. This is a simple but highly important point, and all those who intend to study and practice this New System should follow tlie instruction as herein given : Tire Cutter will see at once that the Front and BacTc Balances measures will bring the length of coat, in front and back ; and, according to the length of the Back Balance, the sweep lines at 3 will change more to the front or to the back. (See Diagrams A, C and D.) And just in the same manner the Shoulder measure must change also, otherwise it will not be in harmony with Front and Back Balance measures. Now this we do in a very easy and simple way, Avithout any comxDlication whatever. In the regular x>i'oportioned size of coat, (no matter what the size of breast may be), the back balance is always one inch less than the front balance. (See measurement. Diagram A). But as long as the back balance does not run below this one inch, and also not above the front bal- ance, we call it a proportioned size, and apjjly one-half of the shoulder measure from A to B, for front of arm scye line, as shown in Diagram A. But as soon as the back balance is more than the front balance (as the case will be in stooping- forms,) then whatever the amount may be which the back balance is more than front, we add the amount to one-half of shoulder measure, and apply it from A to B, for front of arm scj^e line. This is fully illustrated in Diagram C. Then we take the reverse side, where the back balance runs more than one inch below the front balance (as the case will be in erect forms). In all such cases we deduct the amount which is less than one inch, from the one-half shoulder measure, and whatever is left of the one-half shoulder we apply from A to B, and draw the front of arm scye line by this point. To show this more plainly, we suppose the front balance will call for 20|- inches — the back balance 19 inches. Here we have ^ inch which we must deduct from the shoulder measure. Supposing now the shoulder measure calls for 23 inches, one-half of which would be 11^ inches. Now deduct the ^ inch from this, and we have 11 inches, which we apply from A to B. This is also illustrated in Diagram D, (see measurement)— front balance 23| inches — back balance 22 inches. Here we have | inch which we must deduct from the shoulder measure. Now take one-half shoulder measure, 14^ inches ; de- duct f inch from this and we have 13|- inches, which we apply fro7n A to B, as sliown in the draft of Diagram D. This includes all cases, no matter what the dif- ference may be between front and back balance, and which may exist in one way or the other, and by doing so, the front of arm scye line will be established according to the form of the body which we have measured and di-afted for; and the shoulder measure will be brought in liarniony with front and back balance. Now, should any Cutter wish to know the rea- son for so doing, I will state it to him. In the first case above mentioned, (stooping), the dis- tance from D to bottom of arm scye is less than the proportioned size, and consequently the dif- ference of shoulder measure is made up from L to B, or front of arm scye. In the second case, (erect), the distance from D to bottom of arm scye is more than the projpor- tioned size, and L to B must be Jiist so much less. This point B, or front of arm scye line, is of great importance in coat cutting, and therefore we show its effect more fiillv in the next article. 12 THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. AND THE EFFECT WHICH I« HAS IF NOT PROPERLY LOCATED. The proi)er and definite location of B line, or front of arm scye, is one of the most important points in coat cntting, and therefoiv well wortliy of study and consideration. AVe can say with safety, and witliont hesita- tion, that in nine cases ont of ten which the Cnt- ter mnst call misfits, the foundation to these was laid (and can be traced back to this point) by misplacing B, or front of ai'm scye line. To i^rove this, we take the projiortioned size of a 36 inch breast, — and in this we have the follow- ing measures : From centre of back to front of arm scye llf inches, and from this i>oint to cen- tre of breast 9 inches. Now, take for instance the so called erect fann with the same breast measure, 30 inches :— and, when measured, we find the distance from centi'e of back to front of arm scye, or B line, (say lOf inches), and from this point to centre of breast 10 inches. Nt)W what do these measures say, or indicate; It is simply this : Bring B line one inch more towards the back than in the propor- tioned size, and we have this line according to the form of the body, and also the actual amount of breast from B to A^, or centre of breast, which the form does need. This is now one side by which we have shown our point. Then take the stooping form, witli the same breast measure, 36 inches, — and when measiired we find the distance from centre of back to front of arm scye (say 12| inches,) and from this point to centre of breast (say 8 inches.) (See Diagram C.) Now this shows the reverse side from the so-called erect form ; and shall we meet the recpiirements of the form, B line must be drawn one inch further out from the regidar propoi'tioned size, and by so doing we have the correct width from centi'e of back to fi'ont of arm scye, and also the correct width of breast. Sujijtosing now, tlie Cutter uses the so-ca)U'd Division or lireast Measure System, which places f of breast, from centi'e of back to front of arm scye, no matter what form the customer may have, erect or stoojung, it gives tlie amount for each one alike. And what will be the result i III the first case aliove statetl, (erect form,") the coat will be too full in the back and under the arm, while it will be too narrow in front of breast, because the fullness in back, or extra amount of cloth, which lirings the fullness, is needed in front of lu'east. In the second case, (stooi^ing form), the coat will be too tight in l>ack to front of arm ^cye, and too full in front of lireast, — because the full- ness in front of breast is needed in back. But in this case the Cutter will find more than being tight in ])ack. He finds a big wrinkle from centre of back below the shoulder blades, extending across the side body to front of arm scye, thence up to front shoulder point. The aiin scye is too snudl. Every movement the customer makes shows only too plainly that it is a spoiled gar- ment, which can never he made to give entire sat- isfaction to the customer, nor to the Cutter. For him it is an eyesore, which he will try to get rid of if possible ; and therefore, the next thing he will do is, he goes to work to cut the front of arm scye out and give more room to the wearer. But when tlie coat is finished and tried on, he will find a worse fit than befoi'e. The question may arise, why sliould tliis be aoi and we answer : because, when the front of ann scye was cut, all the points on toj) of front shoul- der were changed also and consequently the whole coat is thrown out of balance. It wdll make the coat somewhat easier by the operation, but it will draw more wrinkles iip in front. Then comes wadding in play, and all these points where the wrinkles are will be stuffed out, and by the time the job is completed a hard day's work is done and gone, and the pay for all this troulile and laboi' is — a l)ad-litting coat. A\'e therefore say, before the Ciitter can expect a gootl and easy-fitting coat, it is necessary for him to locate front of Arm Scye, or B line, in lianiioiiy with the figure for which he is called upon to provide a covering. In this System we acconqilish the good result by applying the Shoulder Measure in harmony with Front and Back Balance, in the manner as above stated. PLATE, IV THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 13 PLATE IV. Diagram C. SHOWING THE DRAFT FOR THE ROUKI) SHOULDER STRUCTURES. In this Diagram we intend to prove onr ar- gument in regard to B line, or front of Arm Scye. The breast measure is the same as in Diagram A, 36 inclies — and the slioulder measure only \ inch more tlian in the first draft. But, as we will find, when the draft is made, tlie distance from A toB is 13 inches, which is equal to a 39 inch breast, — and from B line to \ , only 8 inclies, eqiuil to a 32 incli breast. Now, all these changes the uieasures will bring for themselves, without any guesswork whatever. The measurements, we suppose, are as follows : 7 inches Point of shoulder measure. 1!) " Waist length. 20^ " Back Balance. 19i " Front Balance. 311 u Sleeve Length. 27 " Arm depth measure. 24 " Shoulder measure. 8:^ '' Back waist measure. 304^ " Shoulder regulator measure. 36 ' ' Breast measure. 34 " Waist measure. THE DRAFT. Draw line O to — square out from A to Y. Take one-half of shoulder measure, 12 inches. Now notice front and back balance : Here we find one inch more back length than front ; — add this 1 inch to one-half of shoulder measure, and bring the amount, 13 inches, from A to B. (See "The Shoulder Measure in connection with Front and Back Balance." ) Now sqiuire up from B to D, and we liave the front of arm scye line, according to the form of the body. Mark from B to D, front l)alance, V^\ inches — square out from D to K — mark from A to E, back Avaist measure, 8i inclies — draw line from B to F — measure from E to B, 4| inches ; divide this in six equal parts, and bring one-part, f inch, from B to F. Nowapi)ly back balance, 2();V inches from F to H, and make a short sweep out to top of back — then mark one-half of the amount, which the back balance is more than front balance, (or \ inch in this case) from centre line out to H, by which we form the top of back, as in Diagram. Bring the square on H, and draw a line through sweep and mark made by \ inch out to I--mark one-fourth of A and B from D to K, 3^ inches. Apply one-half of arm depth, 13i inches, from K to 3, make a sweep — then the same amount from H, top of back, to 3, and make a sweep also. Bring square on centre line as at L, let long arm rest on crossing of sweep lines at 3, and down a line from L, through sweep, to V. Mark one- third of A and B, 4| inches, from line B to J— from J to C, I inch — square up from C to S. Bring ruler on crossing of B and L lines, let it rest on top of back at H, and mark for N. Square out from P through N to M— draw a line from M to K — mark width of back pitch as at 1 and 2 — mark from H to I, one-half of B and C, 2* inches — the same amount from D to G, and square out to U. Mark Q one fourth of L and M. Next apply length of waist measure from H to W — square out to X — mark in from A, (say \ inch), and shape the back line from H, through mark, to bottom, as shown in Diagram. Maik width of back, from A to 4 — mark | inch above I for spring of back. Having all these points, then shape the back from H to I — from I to 2 — from 2 to 1, and from 1 through 4, to bottom of back — sweep by 1, from bottom of inside line of back, out to 6. Now bring one-third of B and C, or 1| inches, from B to R. Having this point, then apply THE ^HOITLDER RECJlIiATOR. Measure from R to top of liack shoulder seam at line C (say 141 inches). Bring the amount on R, and measure to S, full length of measure, 30|^ inches, and make a sweep out from S, as shown in Diagram A. Now cut the back out, and tinisli the front shoulder, as shown in Diagram B. Also shape the upper arm scye to Q, to 3. Next, place the back to iioint of side body — • fasten it with a pin. Apply the shoulder mea- sure from K to Q, then around the front arm scye to 3, then to centre of back (7 inches below H), full measure, 24 inches, and allow | inch more for seams. Now draw a line along side of back from 1 to line L--bring the pin down to L. Apply back waist measure, and \\ inch more, from B to A — draw a line from L to bottom of inside seam of back, and then shape the side body by these lines, as shown in Diagram B. Next draw bot- tom line of side body, as before shown— draw a 14 THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. line under the arm for width of side body as at 7 — from 7 to 8, mark \ inch, which we have allow- ed, from B to A, and shape the front i^art through 8, as shown in Diagram. Ax^ply the breast mea- sure from L to T (as Diagram B)— from T to V, 2^ inches. Square up from T to U — from U to Z, one-sixth of breast and \ inch more — G to Z2, one-half the amount — draw a line by these points — also from U to V. Shape the neck gorge. Next apply the waist measure — bi'ing the back waist measure, %\ inches, on B, and mark oiit one-half waist, 17 inches, and allow i inch for making up. Having this, then shape the front line for a Double Breasted Coat. Also draw bot- tom line of front part, and linish all the rest as shown in Diagram. Measure upper arm v~v\i' from N to Q — then from Q, around the lower arm scye to N — aTso from K. to Q. and note the amount for draft of sleeve. The Diagram also shows the Single Breasted Cutaway Coat, to button iip high. Measure out from V one inch — at top \\ inches — and shape the front down by these points. The explanation of Skirt will be found on Plate YII.— Diaurani 11. PLATE V. Diagram D. SHOWING THE DRAFT FOR A CORPULENT FIGURE. The reason for giving this large size of Diagram is, first, to show how easy it is to draft a pattern for this class of men by this System ; and, sec- ond, to show the application of the Shonlder Measure in reverse to Diagram C. The measurement will show, that we have the so-called "erect" form of the human body be- fore us — and wdien the draft is finished it will show that the length of back, from L to H, is If inch less than the regular size of breast measure — from centre of back to front of arm scye If inch less than the regular size of breast, or, in other words, for a l)reast measure of 41 inches — and consequently the distance from front of arm scye to A" is just the same amount more. The measure we suppose as follows : 7| inches Point of shouldci' measure. 21 " Waist length •' 22 " Back balance " 28J " Front balance " :30 " Sleeve length 8;} ' ' Arm depth ' ' 28i " Shoulder " 9 '' Back waist " 'f>\\ " Shoulder regulaoi' " 46 " Breast 50 " AVaist Tin: DKAIT. Draw line () Id (). Squni-c out IVdui .\ to V. Take one-half of slioulder measure, I-lj inches. Now noti(^e front and back balance : Here we lind the back balance 1| inch less than front balance, and consequently we have | inch, which we must deduct from one-half shoulder measure — deduct this, and it gives us 13.|^ inches, which we apply from A to B, and the front of arm scye l^oint is established. Now square up from B — mark B to D, front balance, 23f inches — square out to K — A to E, back Avaist, 9 inches — divide the distance from E to B in six parts, and bring one-sixth, f inch, from B to F — F to H, back balance, 22 inches, add one seam. Square out to I. Bring one-fourth of A and B from D to K, 3f inches. Now apply one-half of arm depth measure, 16J inches, from K to 3, and make a sweep line — then the same amount from H to 3, and make a sweep also. Place the square on centre of back and draw a line from L, through sweep at 3, to A", in front. Now bring one-third of A and B, from B line to J, A\ inches — from J to C f inch, and square up to S. Bring the ruler on crossing of B L lines ; let it rest on H, and mark N — square out from P, through N to M — draw a line from M to K — H to I one-half of B and C — the same amount fi'om D to G — square out to U — mark width of back as 1 and 2. Then apply waist length fnnii 11 to AV — square oiit to X. Finish the centre line of back from H to AA"" — ■ mark width from A to 4 — give f inch above I, for spring of back. Now commence and shape the back from H to I — from I to 2—2 to 1, and from 1 down through 4, to bottom. Bring the tape on I, and sweep out to 6. Take one-third of B and C, J.^ inches, and. l)ring this from B to R— apply Tin: SII01LI>I:K KEt^lIiATOR. l^'roMi R to top of back shoulder seam at lineO, (say \h\ inches), bring the amount, whatever it may l)e, on R, and then full measure, 34i inches, PLATE, V PLATE VI if K THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. 15 up to S, and make a sweep, as shown in Diagram. Now exit the back out. Next, finish the front shoulder as in Diagram B. Also draw upijerarm scye to Q, to 3. Then bring the back on side body ; let line 1 meet ; place a pin at this point. Now apply the shoulder mea- sure from K to Q, then around the front arm scye to 3, and then to centre line of back, (7| inches below H), full measure, 28| inches, and allowed f inch more for seams. Then draw a line from 1 to L ; place the pin at L, shove the back in on bot- tom — mark in from B, 1^ inch more than back waist measure, lOJ inches, to A, and draw a line from L to bottom of back. Now finish the side body as shoAvn in Diagram B — draw bottom line from 6 to 9, — also side body line through 7 — from 7 to 8, ^ inch, and draw a line from L, through 8 to bottom. Next apply the breast measure from L, (as in Diagram B) to T — from T to V, 2^ inches — square up from T to U — from II to * the differ- ence between breast and waist measure, 2 inches, and from this point draw a line to V — U to Z, one-sixth of breast and ^ inch more — G to Z 2, one-half of the amount, and draw line out by these marks. Next api^ly the waist measiire bring back waist, 9 inches, on B, and mark out to Y, one-half waist, 25 inches. Now commence and shape the neck gorge — then draw a line from neck point down to V to Y, to X, as shown in Diagram. Then from bottom of side body out to front, for bottom line of front part, and all the rest as shown in Diagram A and B, and the draft is finished. (Draft of Collar, see Explanation, page 18). THE SLEEVE SYSTEM, Plate VI, Before we show the draft of Sleeve, I must re- mind the Cutter of these three measures which we have taken from the j^attern of Diagram B. The first one is the Upper Arm Scye, as from N to Q, 9 inches — the second one is the Lower Arm Scye, as from Q to N, 7| inches — the third one is from K to Q, llf inches. Now, as these measures are directly applied to the draft of Sleeve, it is therefore very important that they should be taken Avith utmost care, and as nearly as possil)le correct. DIAGISAM E. Draw a line from A to O, — square out to 11. Now take the back of Diagram A and mark the distance of L and P lines (3^ inches) from A to B. Square out from B to D. Now take the up- l^er arm scye measure, 9 inches, and bring the amount in a direct line from A to D, and make a mark. Place the angle of square on D, let arm of square rest on B, and draw a line down to L, and we have the width of upper sleeve. Now take the pattern of Diagram A, measure the distance in front of arm scye from line L to Q, (f inch) and bring this from B to C — draw a line from C to D. Divide the upper arm scye measure in three equal parts, and apply one-third, (3 inches) from B to E. Place angle of square on E, let arm of square rest on C, and draw a line up to P, and we have now the cori'ect point which will bring the light length of sleeve head. Now place the tape on F, make this point a pivot, let crayon rest on A, and make a sweep line from A to G. Having this, then shape the front sleeve head from centre of A and B lines to D, striking front line one seam above B line as shown in Diagram. Next apply the measure for sleeve length, which we find in Diagram A, 31^ inches. Now the measure we have taken from K to Q is llf inches. Bring the amount on line B, in front of sleeve, and mark off \ inch more than full mea- sure to L, 31| inches. The Cutter will find that the allowance which we have made for seams is i inch — \ inch above line B, and \ inch at L. Now mark I in centre of B and D — bring angle of square on L, let long arm of square rest on I, and in that position draw a line from L to M. Mark width of sleeve from L to M, according to fa.shion, (say 6 inches), — mark K in centre of D and L — square out to N — draw front line of sleeve according to fashion. Mark width of sleeve from front line to N, (say 9 inches, more or less.) Having this, then draw the back line t)f .sleeve from A through N to M, as shown in Diagram E. THE r.\»ER SIDE OF SLEEVE. Take the measure as above given for loAver arm 16 THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. scye, 7| inches — bring the amount from D to H. Make a mark — and we will find a space between H and A, of 1\ inch— take one-half, or | inch, and mark this in from D to G, which we make the point for front line of under side — now apply the measure, 7f inches, again from G to H, and draw front and back line for undersleeve by these points — take the distance from B to C, de- duct one seam, and bring the amount in front be- low B line, and square across for bottom line of under side. Having this, then shape from H to I, to bottom line, to G, making B line the length of under side, as shown in Diagram E. DIAGRAM F. This Diagram sliows liow to cluingH the p^'out seam of Sleeve. Tlie drafting is in the same manner as in Dia- gram E, and when drafted, then marlv out from D, the amount which you decide uj^on the sleeve seam shall come below Q on front part, (say l^ inch), bring the same amount out from L, and draw a line down by these marks, as sliown in Diagram F. Now, whatever the amount may be which we have marked out from D and L, bring the same amount in from G and L, and draw your line for underside by these points. But when the seam is placed outside of D and L, be careful and have the goods stretched, on the outside of D L, so that it will lay over smoothly on upper sleeve. l;;g°°The Cutter will remember, that we have given two measurements, in the Exjilauation of Measurement, by wdiich we may obtain the sleeve length. The first measure is as w^e have applied in the draft of Diagram E. The second measure, as we have stated in the measurement of sleeve, is from C3ntre of back to elbow, and then to the hand, or full length of sleeve. Now, those who wish to adopt this plan apply the measure as follows : Measure the width of back, from P to N, or C line — bring the amount on A, top of sleeve; and from A, extend the tape to N, to M, full length of measure, and allow \ inch more for seams. All tlie rest is as shown in Diagrams E and F. ^ few ^eii]arks oi] Sleeve 6uttii]i>\ No doubt the majority of Cutters will agree on one point when we say, that a good-fitting sleeve is the ornament to a well-fitting coat. Yes, more than this, we may say without hesitation, it is the finishing touch of heauty and elegance to the garment ; while, on the other hand, a well-fitting coat body containing a bad-fitting sleeve is an eye-sore to the intelligent Cutter. But while the majority of Cutters agree on this very important point, it is nevertheless a well known fact tluit the sleeve does not receive the attention of numy Cutters which it ought to have and should have. Now some may say, Why should this be so, and what reason have you for this '. We answer, l^ecause it is sim])]y for this reason : that some Cutters look upon the sleeve as a matter of trifle and insigniH(-ance. Yes, some have formcMl an idea, tluit almost any tiling in the shape of a sleeve will do, so long as it hiis the right length, and widlh of arm scye. But tiiis is the greatest en-or any Cutter can ever make — and no doubt some of this class of (Jutteis have already paid very dearly for it. It is a. well known fact, that Cutters in geneVal make the coat body their principal study, espe- cially if they have the misfortune of using a .sys- tem wliich gives too much cinth in one place, oi' wiinkling to another -in all sncli cases tliev will try very hard to remedy the evil and avoid the bad consequences. But very few of them will give their study and attention to the sleeve, or even let the thought enter their mind that the sleeve might have something to do with the full- ness and wrinkling of the coat body. Neverthe- less, it is true that in the majority of cases where the cutter finds this trouble, the sleeve is the very thing that produces it. Now, to i:)rove our point and argument, we take for instance, the cutter who has taken up the fashion of trying on the gannent before it is finished, (which we must pronounce a very poor policy). He fits on the coat without the sleeve, then according to his theory the sleeve will fit, if only the coat body will. AVe suppose now that lie is so fortunate as to find the coat body all - right, it fits neatly around the arm scye, side body, and waist — shoulders are nice and square — and it is jiionounced perfect fitting. Thecoat is then finished, and when tried on again, lo! what a change there is in the coat which the ar- tist has pronounced perfect fitting. Thesliould- eis, which were so nice and square belVne, hang down now fiat as a leaf — the side body whicli were nic(> and smooth before, has now a surplus amount of loose cloth extending across the liack. The arm scye in front, which was smootli before, he finds now a big wrinkle. Now then, Mr. Ar- PLATE, VII THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 17 tist, what is tli3 cau?3 of all these changes ? And the answer will be, it is sjioiled by the journey- man tailor. Now, we admit that the journejanan may have done his share, in not sewing in the sleeve as it ought to be — but still, there must be some other cause that has brought all these changes — and this cause, we say is the sleeve, which does not fit in the arm scye. The sleeve head is too short, and drags the shoulder down and produces the fullness and wrinkling under the arm. And if the Cutter has any doubt that this be the case when caught in this dilemma, just rip out the top sleeve, from back to front seam, and this will show you that the shoulder will raise up in the same position as they Avere when fitted on first, and by this, all the loose clotli will be taken away — and furthermore, it will show you the amount which the sleeve head has to be lengthened to fit in the arm scye — and by so doing it will prove that the coat body is all right, but the sleeve is not. Now I claim tliat my Sleeve System which is herein given and explained will, produce a well fitting sleeve every time, providing the measiires are taken correct, and the drafting is made ac- cording to the instruction therein given. It will fit the arm scye without dragging on the shoul- der. It will produce the sleeve according to the form or hang of arm. And furthermore, I claim that it is the most simple and time saving sys- tem on sleeve cutting in existence; any cutter of common talent can draft out a good fitting sleeve in less than one minute. THE SKIRT SYSTEM, PLATE VII. Tlie Skirt is also a very important part of the coat, which, when in good shape and in good hanging position, will add beauty and elegance to the garment. It is therefore more worthy of study than it generally receives. My Skirt System has the most reliable points by which, if located according to the plan as herein shown, will give in all cases, the correct spring in back of plait. It is simple in the way of drafting, and reliable in all its various points — because the most of these points are taken from the body and applied to the draft. Diagram G, SHOWING THE SKIRT FOR A DOUBLE-BREASTED FROCK COAT. Draw a line in front, as from A to B — A to C 9 inches in all cases. Square in from C to D. Now to locate point D : we must saj', this point is governed by the fashion, and should be made accordingly, if the Skirts are worn very full, the amount must be more, and so mce versa. For a medium full skirt, we mark in from C to D, one inch in all sizes. Bring angle of square on A, let short arm rest on D, and draw a line on top, as from A to E. Now measure the bottom of front, side body and lapel, add 1 inch more for fullness, and bring the amount from A to F. Having this, then shape the top of skirt as shown by dark line, and as near as possible to the form of front part, as shown in Diagram A. Next measure the width of side body at bottom, bring the amount from F to G — square down to H. Now to find * H, we must place the square on side body, as shown in Diagram A, as follows : bring angle of square on lower point of side body as to 6, let arm rest on edi!,'e of side seam at A line, as at 5, and in that i^osition draw a line from 6 to 10; then, whatever the space may be between 9 and 10, (say 1^ inch in this case,) bring the a- mount from dark line (or actual waist line of skirt) from G to H, and make a * ; and we have the point which will give the correct spring in back of skirt. Bring the angle of square on x^oint P, let arm rest on * H, and draw a line from F to K. Mark down from F to I, one-half breast, 18 inches in this case. Now i^lace the side body in a joining position with top of skirt, as from F to G, and draw a curved line in harmony with side body from F through I to K, — also draw a corresponding line for the plait. Having this, then finish the bottom line — meas- ure from F to K, length of back skirt, and allow ^ inch more — in centre of skirt mark | inch more than back skirt, and in front as from A to B, length of back skirt, and finish the bottom b\' these points as shown in Diagram G. 18 THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. jram H. SHOWING THE DRAFT OF SKIRT FOR A CUTAWAY FROCK COAT. Draw line from A to B— bring the width of front and side body at waist seam, from A to C — next draw top line as shown in Diagr.or to fancy. Mark width of side body from C to E — square by A B line from E to F, and extend the line up to top of waist line. Now bring the square on side body as before stated, and as shown in Diagram A. Measure from 9 to 10, (say IJ inches in this case) and apply this from top line of skirt to * F. let arm rest on * F, and draw a line from C to D — bring the side body on top of skirt as before stated, and draw a curved line from C down — also draw a corresponding line for the plait. Mark length of back skirt from C to D — also in front. Now bring the front part in a joining position with top of skirt, and shapa the front of skirt down to Gf. Next draw the bottom line from D to G, and finisli the whole as shown in Diagram H, and according to fancy or fashion. Having this, then place the angle of square on C, Diagram I, SHOWING THE DRAFT OF A DRESS COAT SKIRT The Dress Coat Skirt is drafted in the same manner as shown in Diagram H, Avith only one exception, and this is, draw top line in front one- half inch below A, as shown in Diagram; all the rest is as before stated. Now when we have all these points, then meas- ure out from C to H, | of breast, (more or less), according to fashion. Also from D to I, i of breast, or fashion. Next mark width of straps or belts, at H, (say If inches) at A, (say 1^ inch) — Then draw a line from H to I. Having this, then commence and finish the skirt by these points as shown in Diagram, and according to the fashion of the day. The Draff of Baek Skirt. The Back Skirt we draft direct to the clotii. I)raw a line on edge of the cloth, full length of coat — mark off length of waist — from that point mark If inches to W, (Diagr. A). Now place the back on the cloth, let H rest on edge, and AY on If inches. Then extend bottom line of waist to the cloth — let the back remain in its position, and apply the measure for length of coat (say 38 inches — square out — nieasui'e out on waist line, from edge of cloth t<> inside scnni of back, and whatever the amount may be, bring this out on bottom of skirt. Having this jioint, then draw a gentle curved line from inside line of back to mark made at bottom — also for plait of skirt — and finish the rest according to fashion or fancy. TJie Draft of Collar. The Collar, as shown in Diagram D, is drafted as follows : Bring the ruler on front shoulder point ; let it rest on point to which the coat shall roll in front, and draw a line from down, as shown by dotted lines — then bring the width of back from shoulder point to 3. From O line mark down to 3, (say finch), and draw a line from this mark to the shoulder point for crease of col- lar — by this line square uj) to 2, and also to 1. Mark standing collar, as from 3 tol, 1\ inches — from 3 to 2, (say 1^ inches), or fashion, and shape the rest as shown in Diagram, and according to the fashion of the day. Collars which are intended for a short roll, as in the single breasted coat. Diagram C, — the point from to 8 nuiy be made one inch, and draw line for crease of collar by it, But if so, then have top and bottom stretched from centre seam to front of crease so it will lav over smoothly. The Draft of Body Sack, PLATE VIII. Sack Coats are drafted on the same plan as frock coats. 'The measurement is the same, and all the constructicm lines also. The only change wliich we must make in Sack Coats is in the di- \ ision of the amount from E to ]>. In Frock Coats we measure from E to B, and divide the amount in six equal ])arts and apply one pait from B to F. In Sack Coats, howevei', we musi divide llie dislaMce, E lo T>, iu four I'ipial parts, and apply one part (or ^th)from B to F. The reason for doing so is simply this : Sack t'oats need a longer back on top, and tlie one- fourth provides for this ; otherwise it is the same as shown in Frock Coats — and if the drafting is can-ied out according to the instructions as here- in given, a neat-litting garment will be produced, which will give sitisfaction to br)th customer and Cutter. PLATE, Vm \R B THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 19 The 3Iea!«iireiueiit. The measures which we use iu the explanation of this draft are the same as in Diagram A, with the exception of length of coat, as follows : 6^ inches Point of shoulder measure. 30 " Length of coat. 19i- " Back balance. 20| " Front balance. 3l| " Sleeve length. 26^ " Arm depth. 23|^ " Shoulder measure. 7i " Back waist. 31 " Shoulder Regulator. 36 " Breast measure. 32 " Waist measure. DIAGRAM J. Draw a line from to W. Square out from A to Y. (Notice front and back balance same as in frock.) A to B, one-half of shoulder measure, llf inches — square up from B — B to D, front balance — square out from D to K — A to E — back waist measure. Then measure from E to B ; divide this in four parts, and bring one part (or one-fourth) from B to F — F to H, back balance 1^^ inches, — square out from H to I — D to K, one-fourth of A and B, 2| inches ; from K to 3, one-half of arm depth 13i inches, make a sweep ; then the same amount from H to 3, and make a sweep also. Square out from L through sweep lines to front at V. Next bring one-third of A and B, from B line to J — J to C, f inche in all cases. Square up from C to S — take one-half of B and C, add one seam, and bring this from H to I, 2| inches ; then the same amount from D to G — square out to U — place the ruler on crossing of B, L, H, and mark for N — square out from P through N, to M; draw aline fromM to K. The next point we now establish is the width of back, or shoulder seam, as at 2. Now here I must say, this is a matter of fancy, where most of Cutters follow their own taste, and which the fashion will change also. Therefore I will give a guide only, which I find in general practice, brings this point about right. Measure the dis- tance from L to P lines, and apply one-half from N or P line, to 2, and square out. Mark out on this line pitch of back, (say f inch, more or less). Having this, then apply the measure for length of coat, from H to W ; square out from W to front. Next decide on point 1, or in other words, where you wish to locate the side line of back ; make a mark; Also mark width of back at bottom, as from W to X, to fancy, (say 6 inches) ; having these points, then draw a line from 1 to X, for side seam of back, according to fancy or fashion. Mark in from A to 4, hollow of back, (say | inch, more or less), and draw centre of back from P, through 4 to bottom. Now shape the back from H to I, from I to 2, from 2 to 1, as shown in Diagram, and according to fancy or fashion. Having this, then take one-third of B and C, and mark this out from B to R, and apply The Shoulder Megiahttor. Measure from R, to top of shoulder seam of back at line C, bring the amount on R, and mark off full measiire, 31 inches, to S, in the same manner as in diagram A. Sweep out from S by R. Having this, then cut the back out. Bring the back on top of front shoidder, and finish the shoulder on front part, and ujiper arm scye as shown in Diagram B. Next, bring the back on side seam as at 1, fasten it with a pin. Now apply the shoulder measure from K to Q, then around the front arm scye to centre of back, 6i inches below H, and allow f inch for seams, as shown in Diagram B. Then draw a line from 1 to L, — mark from 5 to 6 the amount which you intend to take out between back and front. Now this as the ]orac- tical Cutter does know, depends entirely on the shape which we like to ]produce. If the coat shall fit close in back the amount must be more, and if it shall be more in a straight form the amount must be less. For a medium close fitting body Sack, take one-fourth of E to B, in this case one inch. Having this, then shafie the lower arm scye by the back, from 1 to 3, and draw side line of front from 1 through 6 to X as shown in Diagram. Bat here we must caution the Cutter: do not bring thej)oint of side body below line 1, or point of side line on back, otherwise the back will be shortened on top. Always leave sjjace for one seam between arm scye and side line at this j)oint. Now as we have finished all these points, then apply the Breast Measure, as in Diagram B, from L to T — square up to U — from T to V 2^ inches, make a mark. Next bring the Back Waist measure 7^ inches, on B, and mark out one-half of waist measure, 16 inches to Y. Next place the ruler on U and Y and draw a line to Z, which we make the point for collar. Then mark from U to Z one-sixth of breast and ^ inch more — bring one-half of the amount from Gr to Z 2 and draw a line out. Mark out from V. (say 1 inch, more or less,) according to the style of front — then shape the neck, and draw a line down in front according to fancy or fashion, and finish all the rest as shown in Diagram. Next mark Q, one-fourth of L and M — measure upper and lower arm scye ; also from K to Q, as shown in frock coat, and draft the sleeve by these measures as in Diagr. E, and the draft is finished. 20 THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. iVT loUBLE AND |lNGLE-§REASTED |ACK PI.ATE IX. ^ iVER mOATS. Tl]e Sack Overcoat. Sack OverCoats, as shown in this Diagiani, are drafted in the same manner as body saclvs, and as sho^ni in Diagram J, with only one exception. By looking over the Diagram we find all the points and letters as in Body Sack. But after all, there is one point to which your attention must be drawn, and this is from X to 7. In Body Sacks we draw the side line of front part to X, or back. The Over Coat, however, needs more fullness at bottom, and therefore we mnst change this point according to the length of coat, and also according to the fullness which the fashion may call for. In regard to the measiirenient of Sack and Frock Over Coats : The measures shonld be ta- ken over the nnder or body coat, in the same manner as we have explained in the measurement over the vest. By taking the measurement over the undercoat we will have the exact amount to draft from, without making any allowances what- ever, exceptrin those places Avhere we allow for seams and making up. I find this the easiest and surest way of measuring and drafting the Over Coats. The Mcjisurcment, We suppose, as follows : 6| inches Point of shoulder measure. 42 •' Length of Coat. 20 " Back balance. 21 " Front balance. :}2 " Sleeve length. 28 " Arm deptli. 24| " Shoulder measure. 8 " Back waist measure. 32 " Shoulder Regulator measure. 38 " Breast measure. 33^ " Waist DIAGEAM K. Diaw a line from O to W — squai-i^ out fi'om A to y. (Notice front and back balance.) Now bring one-half of shoulder measure, 12f inches, from A to B— square up from B— B to D, front balance — A to E, back waist^ — B to F, one-fourth of E and B— P to H, back balance— D to K, one- foui'th of A and 13— K to 3, one-half arm depth, make a sweej) — H to 3, same amount make a sweej) also. Square out frcmi L, through sweep to front — B line to J, one-third of A and B — J to C, | inch. Square up from C to S ; mark N by 11, and L B line — square out from P, through N to M — draw a line from K to M — Jf to 2, (say one-half of L and P), more or less — H to I, one-half of B and C, and one seam — D to G, same amount — square out to U — H to W, length of coat — sqiiare out to front — A to 4, (say J inch,) — W to X, width of back, (say Q^ inches, more or less) — line 1, to fashion or fancy. Now finish the back, from H to I, from I to 2 — from 2 to 1, and from 1 through 5 to X — then finish the centre of back as shown in Diagram, and according to fashion. Bring one-third of B and C, from B to R. Then apply The Nhouldcr Regulator. Measui'e from R to top of Back Shoulder at line C, bring the amount on R, and luark up to S full length of measure, 32 inches, and make a sweep from S out, same as in Diagram A. Now cut the back out. Bring the back on top of front shoulder and finish the same as in Diagram B, — draw a line for upper arm scye to Q to 3. Then bring the back to side seam let line 1, meet, fasten the back with a pin — apply the shoulder measure from K to Q, then around the arm scye to 3, then to centre seam of back 6f inch below H, and allow I inch for seams — draw a line from 1, to line L, mark from 5 to 6, (say one-fourth of E and B, more or less). Now mark spring at bottom, as from X to 7 — (say 2^ inches). Then draw the side seam of front from 1 to L through 6 to 7 as shown in Diagram — shape the lower arm scye as in Diagram J. Next apply the breast measure, from L to T, as before shown. Square up from T to U — T to V, 2t1- inches — mark from U to Z, one-sixth of breast, and ^ inch more — one-half the amount from G to Z 2. and draw line out. Next, apjjly the waist measure. Bring back waist on B, and mark out waist measure, and 1 inch more to Y. Bring the ruler on U and Y, and draw a line to Z, which we make the point for collar. Now mark out from Y, for a Single- Breasted Coat (say 1\ inches), the same amount from Y. Having this, then shape the neck to Z from Z, shape the lapel according to the fashion of the day, and from this point draw the front line through mark at "\', and Y, to bottom. Also shape the bottom line, and all the rest as shown in Dia- gram K.. This Diagram also shows the Double-Breasted PLATE, IX PLATE, X THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 21 Coat. Mark out from Y, to front, (say 3 inches, more or less), the same amount from Y. to front, and draw the front line by these marks. Then measure in from Y, \ inch less than we have marked outside, also the same amount from Y, in, and draw a line for the Buttons. Tl^e Brock Overcoat. Tliisstvle of coat-; isdraftf^d in the saiu':' manner as shown in Diagrams A, and B, without any change whatever, except the measurement, wliich should be taken over the body coat. The one-fourth of E, and B, which we have ap- plied in Diagram K, from B, to F, is in Sack Coats only. Bear this in mind, and no alteration will be needed. PLATE X, SHOWING THE DRAFT OF THE IXVERXE AND HOW TO PRODUCE THE THREE' This style of Over Coats, known as the Inverness Cape, have been in demand for quite a number of years, and although the fashion has drawn the garment out of style, it is still worn by some, and will be so for some time to come, because it is the most comfortable garment for traveling purposes ever gotten up. Now this style of Over Coats are generally drafted by graduated scales, and the result, no doubt, some have experienced. We find that all patterns drafted by scales will be above 38 breast, a number of sizes too large for the breast for which they are intended. The only way to overcome the difficulty is to draft out the pattern by actual measurement, and in the same manner as we do in Fkock and Sack Coats. The Measureiiieiif. This is the same as in frock and sack coats, and should be taken over the under coat, except breast and waist, which should be taken over the vest in this style of coats. We suppose now that the measures are as fol- lows : 44 Inches Length of Coat. 20 " Back balance. 21 " Front " 32 " Sleeve length. 31 " Cape " 28 " Arm depth measure. 24 " Shoulder 31^ " Shoulder Regulator measure. 18 " Neck measure. 36 " Breast 33 " Waist " The Draft of Diagram L. Draw a line in centre of back as from to W — square out from O to Y— from O to A, front bal- ance, 21 inches— square out from A to front line— |^~ now from A to C, one-half of shoulder measure, -: 12 inches, square C, line up to top— from C to B, one-half of A and C, six inches— square B line up to D. The distance which we now have from A, to B, is 18 inches. SfS t'APE, WITH OR WnilOlT i^IEEYES. ALSO -QITARTER CIRCLE OR CAPE. Now take one-fourth of A and C, or 3 inclic^ and apply this, from O to I — then from D to J — also from D to K. Square these lines as shown in- Diagram. Then mark from J to G, one-sixth of breast, which is the same amount, in this case, as from D to J, 3 inches — square out to Z. Having this, then mark F, in centre of O and D — square F line down — then E. in centre of D and F, and make a mark. Now bring the tape measure on B, and mark the back balance, 20 inches, uj) to '■•' 1 at F line. Next apply the Arm-depth Measure — take one- half of the measure, 14 inches, and apply this from K, down to centre of B and C lines, and make a sweep — then apply the same amount from * 1 at F line to centre of B and C, and make a sweep also, as shown in Frock Coat Diagram A. Now bring the square on centime line of back and draw a line out from L, through sweep lines to front — mark M, one-fourth of breast (or 4|- inches in this case) from line L, and square in to 2. Having this, then measure the space between C and P lines and mark * in centre at A line, {\\ inches from C,)^place the tape on this * and mark up back balance, 20 inches, to H, and we have the correct length of Back. Now square out from H, to I — from this line mark up on I, f inch, for spring of back — jilace the ruler on mark made by | inch, and draw a line down to N — then apply the measure for full length of coat — bring the tape on H, let it run down on centre line and mark off 44 inches— from this mark up to W, one inch, and square out to X. Having this, then bring the ruler on E, let it rest on the crossing of C M lines, and draw a line down to bottom of coat, as at 5. Now bring the ruler on 2, let it rest on crossing of A, and E^ lines, as at 3, and draw a line from 2, to 4. Then shape the back from H to I, from I to 2, as shown in Diagram — place the tape on I, at top line, let it run to bottom of back, and make a sweep from AY, 22 THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. to 4. Next bring the tape on D, and make a sweep from 5 to X, for bottom of front. Mark in from Q to P, li inch, make a mark— now measure from B to C, and bring one-third of the amount, two inches, from B to R, and apply The Shoulder Regulator. Bring the tape on R, let it run up to P, in a straight line, bring the amount on R again, and measure up to S, at E line, full measure, 31i inches —square S line out by line B— from S to S 2, mark the same amount as from Q to P, li inches, and square this line in. Mark up from line M to Q, i inch, and draw a line to P. Having this, then finish the front part, — measure out from on top line, one-half of breast, 18 inches— from this point, mark out to T, one-fourth of breast, 9 inches, and square this line down to bot tom. Now mark from T to V, li inch— T to X, at bottom 2 inches in all cases and sizes — place the ruler on V and X, and di'aw a line from tojj to bottom. Next we commence and shape the front — from S 2 at E line we draw a gentle curved line for top of front shoulder to K line, as shown in Diagram — from crossing of J and K, draw a line for neck gorge out to Z. Then shape the arm scye, from S, at E line to M, to L, and up to P. Having this, then mark in from front line | inch to Z, and also the same amount in from T, wliich we make the point for collar. Now shape the front by Z, and all the rest as shown in Diagram L, and cut the pattern out — but be careful, and notch front and back at A line as at 3, which point must meet when the coat is joined. Now this corai^letes the coat with sleeves. Diagram L Skowi/ig the same Drafl, loUliout Sleeves. Draft the pattern as before shown with sleeves, and when drafted, then mark down from L line to 6, one-sixth of breast, 3 inches — mark centre of B and E line, at shoulder seam, and draw a line down to 6, as shown by -(-lines in Diagram. All the rest is as before stated. Diagram M. Showing How to Drc{ft the Cape for the Inver- ness Cape Coat. Place the front part of coat on tlie i)attern paper, and draw neck and front by the coat. Bring the ruler on crossing of J, K, lines, let it rest in centre of S, S 2, at C line, and draw a line to Y. Next, bring the tape on K, measure down to U, full length of Cape, 31 inches — now place the tape measure on J, make this point a pivot, and sweep from U to Y, and draw a corresponding line from U, to front, by a curved ruler, and finish all tlie rest as shov/n in Diagram. Diagram N, Showtag the Draft of the so-called ^•Three- Quart er Circle or Cape. This style of garments is worn by military men, and also by others, over Frock and Sack Coats. The Draft. Draw a line from D to B — square out from D, to K, — mark from D to K, one- sixth of breast, 3 inches, and draw line down ; now take the pattern of the coat, for which the Cape is intended, place the back on top line, as at K — then bring the front part to back, so tliat shoulder seam of coat will rest in a closing posi- tion, front shoulder point resting on K line, back at top line — B,D, line of coat running parallel with B, D, line of cape, and in that position draw a line in centre of back by the pattern, as from K to Y 2. Shape the neck by the pattern as from K, to Z — • and also from Z, d(jwn in front. Having this, then take the pattern off — mark down from D to J, 3 inches in all cases, and make this point a pivot. Next mark length of cape from K, to U, (say 31 inches). Bring the tape on point J, or pivot, and sweep from U, to Y 2, or centre of back, as shown in Diagi'am. Now draw a corresponding line from U to front, as in Inverness Cape, and cut the pat- tern out. Diagram 0. Showing the Draft of Collar. Draw a line from 1, to 3, — square up from 1, to 2, — mark up from 1, to O, li inche.s, and from 0, to 2, (say 2 inches). Now measure the neck of coat, 9 inches — bring 9 inches from 1, to 3, — mark width of Collar from 3, to 4, (say 2f inches) more or less— mark up in centre of 1, and 3 (say 1 inch) — then commence and shape the Collar from 1, to mark by 1 inch, to 3 — from O, to 3 — and from 2 to 4, as shown in Diagram. Draftiiig- the Sleeve. Measure the arm scye — ^bring | inch more than ^ of arm scye measure from S, E, line down below M, and make this the point for front sleeve seam, (as at Q, Diagram A). Also measure from K, to this mark, same as in frock or sack — note the measures down, and draft the Sleeve in the same manner as in frock or feack coats, as shown in Dia- gram E, with only one exception, and this is :— Measure the distance from M, to point of front Sleeve seam, on front part, and whatever the amount may be, apply this in the di-aft of Sleeve, as from A, to B, Diagram E. THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 23 THE PATTERN SYSTEM. The System, as herein laid down, will be found the most simple and reliable method of drafting patterns for the Ready-made Trade ever gotten up and jjresented to the trade. The difficulty gene- rally experienced by the Breast Measure System, whereby all sizes above 38 breast will be too large, and below 35 too small for the intended breast, is herein overcome. The principle on which the pattern system is based as laid down in the Actual Measurement, and the drafting is also illustrated by the same Diagrams as therein given and explained. In the annexed "Cutting- Table of Proportions" Avill be found the principal measures for each size of breast, which we have to apply for the various points of Diagrams. The arrangement of figures in this Table are very simple, so that any Cutter can use it at once. The first line of figures give the breast from 24 to 48 ; the second line of figures . the distance from A to B ; the third line the dis- tance from B to D ; the fourth line of figures the distance from D to L, or bottom of arm scye ; the fifth and sixth lines, the length of sleeve for each size of breast; and will l)e fully illustrated in the next draft. Diagram A. SHOWING DRAFT OF A 36 SIZE FROCK PATTERN. Draw line from O to O — square from A to Y. Now apply the measures as given in the Cutting Table, ojiposite figure 18, or Breast measure, as follows : From A to B, 12 inches, square up to D — B to D, 20J inches, and square out to K — D to L (or bottom of arm scye), 12^ inches — square from L, through mai'k to V, in front, and we have the principal lines for the pattern. Now mark from D to K, one-fourth of A and B, 3 inches— measure from B toK, 20| inches, and bring this from B to H, for length of Back. Mark from B line to J, one-third of A and B, 4 inches — J to C, f inch in all sizes — square up from C to g — applj^ one-half of B and C (2f inches), from H to I, also from D to G, and squaie out to U — place the ruler on crossing of L and B lines, let it rest on H, and mark for N. Square out from P, tlirougli N to M — draw a line from M to K — mark width of back as from 1 and 2— from A to AV, one-eighth of A and H (more or less, according to fashion) — square out from W to X — mark width of back from A to 4 — bring f inch above I, for spring of back. Now shape the back, from H to I, from I to 2, from 2 to 1, and from 1 through 4, to bottom, according to fashion or fancy. Having this, then mark up from L on C line, one-fourth of breast {A^ inches), and from that point one-eighth of breast to S — bring the tape on M, and sweep out from S. Now, here I must say, that wdienever the shoul- der seam of back is drawn higher up than ilh of breast at line C, then deduct the Jimount from ^ of breast, and bring point S so much farther down —and so nice versa. Next bring the tape on point 1, and sweep from bottom line of back out to 6 — apply i inch less than one- fourth of A and B, (2f inches), from 4 to 5— mark | inch in all sizes between back and side body, at line L. Having this, then cut the back out and finish the side body by these points, 5 and f inches, in the same manner as shown in actual measurement, Diagram B. Then draw a line for width of side body, as from line L, to 7 to 9,— mark ^ inch in all sizes from 7 to 8, and shape side line of front, through 8 to bottom. Now finish the bottom line of side body as shown in actual measurement, — also the front shoulder and arm scye, as before shown in Diagram B. Mark Q one-fourth of L and P, from line L, up— apply the breast measure from L to T— square up to U— T to V, 2i inches in all sizes — square down from V to bottom — mark ^ inch out from this line to Y— U to Z, one- sixth of breast and | inch more— G to Z 2 one-half the amount. Having this, tlien finisli the whole as shown in actual measurement in Diagrams A and B. Then measure upper and lower arm scye as before shown, and draft the sleeve by these mea- ■ sures as in Diagrs. E andF. Apply the measures as given in the "Cutting Table," from centre of back to elbow, 20 inches, to O, or full length of sleeve, 32^ inches— allow \ inch for seams ;' and square by L and I foi- bottom. 24 THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. Diagram J. SHOWING THE DRAFT OF SACK- COAT FATTERNS. In giving the necessary instruction for the draft of sack coats, we will take the 40-inch breast, and by so doing we show the working of the Catting Table more fully. The Di'aft. Draw line from O to W— square out from A to Y— from A to B, 13|- inches— square up to D— from B to D, 21| inches— from D to L, Vd\ inches- square out from L, through mark to V in fronts D to K, one-fourth of A and B, 3^ inches. Now measure from B to K, (22 inches), add f inch in dll sizes of Sack coats, and bring the full amount (22f inches in this case), from B to H— square out to I— from B to J, one-third of A and B, (4| inches). J to C, I inch— square up from C to 8. Then take one-half of B and C (2J- inches), add one seam and apply this from H to I, also from D to G, and square out to U. Now mark N, by H and cross- ing of L and B— square out from P, through N to M— draw a line from M to K. Next mark width of back or shoulder drop. (See explanation of actual measurement). Take one-half of L and P, (more or less), from N to 2— mark out from 2, for pitch of back (say f inch) — also mark f inch for spring of back above I. Now shape the back, from H to I, from I to 2, from 2 to 1. Next mark full length of coat from H to W, (say 82 inches), square out from W to front — mark width of back from W to X, (say 6| inches). Having this, then shape the side seam of back, from 1 to X, to fancy or fashion. Next bring one-fourth of breast (5 inches) from L up on line C — from this point one-eighth of breast {2^ inches), to S. Now, whatever the shoulder seam of back may be above the mark of ^ the breast, deduct the amount from S, and bring this point so much lower down. Sweep out from S, by M. Apply the breast measure from L to T, square up to U — T to V, 2^ inches — square from V to Y — draw a line by U and Y, to Z — U to Z one-sixth of breast and I inch more — G to Z 2, one-half the amount. Now finish the front shoulder, arm scye, and neck, as shown in actual measurement — then shape the front to fashion or fancy. Next mark from /) to 6 (say 1\ inch), (see actual measurement), and shape the side of front part from 1 through 6, to X, and all the rest as before shown in Diagram J. Diagram K. THE DRAFT OF OVER-COATS. The Drafting in thisDiagram is the same as in Diagram J, or l)ody sack, and does not need any further explanation. The only instructions whicli are needed we find in the following points : Fir at: The Over Coat does need a longer back on top, as from L to H, than the Body Sack. The extra allowance which we make in under sack is | inch ; in over sack we make the allowance, above B and K, ^ inch. Second: The Over Coat needs more fullness on bottom, therefore we must make the allowance as shown in actual measurement, from X to 7. Third: By drafting an Over Coat by the same breast as in Diagram J, 4() inches, \ve will have a pattei-n which will Jit a man of 38 breast. This shows that tlie Over Coat does need two inches more in width than the under coat, to tit the same person. All the rest of drafting is as shown in Diagram J, and as explained in actual measurement. Diagram L- THE DRAFT OF 1N\KHNESS CAPE OVERCOAT. Draw a line IVc.in () to \V -sqiiaiv out from O to V— now mark (for a 3(; lu-eastj from O to A, 2(H inches. Square out from A to front— A to C, 12 inches, square u]) to top lino— C to B, one-half of A and C, (\ inches, square up to D— D to L, |- inch more in all sizes than the amount given in the "Cutting Table," 13 incln\s. Now take one-fourth of A and C (3 inches), and 'n-ing this from O to I, also from I) to ,), and liom ,1 to G, also from 1) to K — square all lliese lines— mark F, in centre of O and D— E, in centre of F and I) 1) lo T, one lialf breast (!) inches) T to \'. II inch in all sizes mark M, one-fourth of breast from L — square in to 2. Now mark one-third of C and B, (2 inches) from C, out, and niak(> a mark — from this point measui'e up to Iv, (21f inches), and bring the amount from mark to H, length of back— square out, mark | inch al)ove this line for spring of back— from G to S 2, one-third of G, and D. Having all these points, tlien hnish the draft liy these i)oints, as shown in actual measurement. The Cape is drafted in the same nr.umer as be fore shown, also the Sleeve and Collai'. aii'l does not nciMJ (uilliei- ex[ilanaf ion. THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. 25 fuTTING f ABLE OF f ROPORTIONS Drafting Coat and Vest Patterns FOE THE READY-MADE TRADE. One-half Breast Meas- ure. pq o s p ■V-l o a C3 s o p h4 o p V Pi CO Lejigth of Sleeve from centre of Back to El- bow. Full length of Sleeve from centre of Back to 0,* Diagram E. 1— i i >> a; INCHES. INCHES. INCHES. INCHES. INCHES. INCHES. 12 13 14 W 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 8i H m 111 12 .121 m 131 14i 14f 14 15i 16^ 17f 19f 20| 21i 211 22i 221 23f 24 9i 9| lOi Hi 111 121 12f 13f 14i 141 14 15 15f 16i i7i 19i 20 20f 21i 211 22i 22f 23 21i 23i 25 26f 29 m 32i 33i 34i 341 3of 3of 36i PLATE, XI V K THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 27 THE VEST SYSTE The System as herein given, is on the same plan as the Coat System, and will provide for all the 'oarious forms of tlie Tiuman body which the Cutter may be called on to measure and draft for. The Measurement is the same as exjilained in the measurement of Coats^except that we must add length of Collar, full length of Vest in front, and also full length at hip — which will he fully shown in the measurement below, and also in the draft of Diagram P. Now, with these few lines of introduction and explanation of measurement, the Author advises all those who intend to study and practice the neAv principles, to follow out the instructions as herein given, and if you thus do, a trial will be sufficient to show that the System will do all which we liave above stated, and you will become a hearty indorser of this valuable System. PLATE XI, The Measiireiiieiit. The measures, as we have before stated, are taken in the same manner as in Coats, and sup- pose that they are as follows for a single-breasted Vest : 19^ inches Back Balance. 20i " Front Balance. 20i " Armdepth. 23^ '' Shoulder measure. 7|- " Back Waist measure. 31 " Shoulder Regulator. 14 " Length of Collar. 26* " Full length of Vest. 231 " Full length at hip. 36 " Breast. 31 " AVaist. DIAGRAM P. The Draft of a Siiigle-Breasted Test. Draw line O, to O — square out from A, to Y — now notice front and back balance, same as in Coat. (See Explanation of Shoulder Measiire, page 11). Now take one-half of shoulder measure (llf inches) and Itring this from A, to B — from B, to C, one inch in all sizes — square up from C to D — apply front balance from C, to D (20* inches), and square out to U. Now apply back waist measure from A to E — then measure from E to B, divide this in foiir parts, and bi-ingone part froniA to F, (one inch). Nowapjily l)ack waist measure again from F to (I, and make a mark. Bring the tape measure on G, and apply back lialance 19^ inches, with \ inch added for seams, from G to H — square out to I. Having this, then take the distance from A to B, divide the amount in four equal parts, and apply one part, {21 inches,) from H to I — then from 1) to J — also from D to K. Now apply the arm depth measure, take one-half (13:^ inches) and l)ring this from K to P, make a sweep line — then from H to P, and make a sweep line also. Bring the square on centre line of back, and draw a line from L through sweep at P, to V, in the same manner as Coat Diagram A. Having this line, then mark up from line L to N, one-fourth of A and B — mark | inch up from I, for spring of back — place the ruler on this mark, and point N, and draw shoulder line of back. The next line we must hud is line Isi : Take one-half of A and B, (5^ inches), and apiily this from line C, to M, and square up — diaw a line from L and C to K. Now, having established all these points, we go on and apply "The Hhonlder Regulator." Place the tape on G, let it run up in a direct line to R, top of back shoulder seam — bring the a- mount on B, and then up in a direct line to S, full length of measure, 31 inches, and make a mark— place the rule on S, let it rest on crossing of J K lines, and draw a line oiit. Having all these points and lines, we then com- mence and finish the Back. Draw a line from H to L, through F, to bottom, for centre of hack — then from 11 to I, or mark for spring of liack — finish the shoulder seam to R — then from R, tin- ish the arm scye to P, or side line of back and front, wliich line may be drawn to fancy (say centre of Mand C)— mark out from G, 11 inch for seams and ease. Now commence, and draw side line from P, through mark at waist, to Z, at bottom — as shown in Diagram. Next linish the Front : Bring one-half of breast measure from L to T— from T to V, 2 inches in all cases — square up from T to U, from U draw a line to V, by which line we form the front line cf vests which shall button up very high. Having this, then apply the waist measure —bring tlie Inick waist measure on B, mark out to Y, one-half of waist, IS^ inches, and allow for one seam in front. Then apply the measure for length of vest :— take the tape, measure from D to J— place the amount on front shoulder point, and measure to V, length of collar, 14 inches— then to W, full length of vest, 26* inches, and allow for seams- then to X, lengtlfof hip, 23^ inches, and allow for seams also" Having all these points, then shape the front— draw a line from V, through Y, to bottom, also a corresponding line for lap of button side— shape the point for collar, and draw a line for neck, from K line to V. Next draw a a line from P, through B, to X— also from X to "\Y— then shape bottom line of back, and cut the back out. Bi-ing the back on top of front shoul- der ; let point I rest on K J line, and in that po- sition, finish the front arm scye, by the back— then shape the front shoulder from arm scye to K line,— and all the rest as shown in Dia- uraiii P, and according to the fashion of the day. 28 THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. PLATE XII. DIAGRAM Q. Showing' the different ««tyle!^ of Test. In this Diai^Tam we show the di'aft of the dif- ferent styles of Vests, — the Single Breasted, to button close np to the neck, — the Double Breast- ed to button way np, — and also the Double Breasted with long rolling collar. Diagram Q is drafted in the same manner as shown in Diagram P ; and whatever the style may be, which the Cutter may wish to draft, the change must be in front, as from V, Y and W. We will show these changes by three Diagrams: DIAGRAM P. Single Breasted Vest, to button dose np to neck. We suppose now, that we have made the draft as in Diagram P, with the exception that the front line, from V to W, has to be drawn. Now commence and mark, from D to Q, one- third of breast, 6 inches — square out to Z. Hav- ing this, then shape the neck to front line at Z — from this point draw front line to V, to Y, to W and we have the side for tlie button holes ; then draw a line outside for the button side, or lap, as in Diagram P. Mark in from front line at Z, to point of collar (say f inch) and the draft is fin- ished. DIAGRAM S. S/ion-iiif/ (Itc Diajt of I lie Double Breasted Vest, to button close vp to the neck. This style of ^"est is drafted as shown in Dia- gram R. Draw front line, from Z to W. Now draft the Lapel. Mark on top, (say 2 inches), — at V line (say 2^ inches) — at Y line (say 2 inches, more or less) — and shape the Lapel, as shown in Diagram, according to fashion or fancy. DIAGRAM T. with Shoicliirj (he Draft of the Double Breasted Vest, long rolling Collar. Mark length of Collar to measure or fancy — mai'k out from Y (say 2i inches) — at liottom (say If inch, more or less) — and draw a line liy these marks — then draw a line doAvn for neck — finish the bottom to fashion. Next draw a line for Buttons, ^ inch less than we have marked outside of Y and W, and finish the rest as shown in Diagram. The Pattern System, DIAGRAM P. SHOWING THE DRAFT OF A 36-SIZE A^EST PATTERN. Draw line O to O — square out from A to Y. (See Cutting jTable of Proportions, page 25). Mark from A to B 12 inches — B to C, one inch in all sizes — square up to D — fnmi B to D '20\ inches — square out to U — D to L, 12^ inches — square out from L, through mark to V — apply one-half of A and B, from line C, to M — square iip from M. Now mark at waist, from A to F, i inch — from F. to G, or side line of Back, one-half breast, 9 inches. From C, measure up to D, (20A- inches), and bring tlie amount from G to H, allow one seam above H, and square out to I' Then take one-fourth of A and B, 3 inches, and apply this from H to I — from D to K — D to J — also from line L, to N. Mark ux> from I, | inches for spring of back — place the ruler on this mark, and N, and draw line for shoulder s(»am of back. Now take oue-lialf of line jj, and D. ((!J- inches), add \ inch in all cases to this ^, and bring it from M to S— place the ruler on L and K, and draw a line np, also from S to K, J, line. Now a^iply the breast measure from L to T — from T to \\ 2 inches. Square up from T to I' — from U diaw a line to V. IMark lengtli of front. This of course is i-eguhited by fasiiioii, and must be made accordingly. For a guide, we will say, bring ^d of breast (6 inches), from Y to W — and one-sixth, or 3 inches, from B to X, and draw the bottom line by these ixdnts — mai'k out from B, ^ inch less than one-half breast, (8^ inches). Having now all these points, then commence and finish the draft Sliape centre of back from H to L, tluough F to bottom. Then from R to P — from P, through G, to Z. Now cut the back out and bring it on top of front shoulder, and finish as before stated in actual measurement. Draw arm scye to P — from P, finish side line to B, to X. Then draw line for bottom of back as shown in the Diagram. Next finish the neck, from J K lines to point of collar, then from A', through Y, to \V — and all the rest as shown in actual measurement. In regard to the draft of the diftVrent styles of Vests, as in Diagrams Q, R, S and T, this is done in the same manner as liefore stated, and does not need furtlier exi)lanation. Having shown this draft of a 30 size, we will say that, ]»r()viding tlie Cutter will use " Tlw Cutting Table of Proportions,''^ and follow the instruction as heiein given, he will produce a set of Patterns whicli are equal to any tiiat he may f)rder from pattern (>stablishments. And i>\- lliis the N'est S\stem is ended. PLATE, XII MJ3iMil-^-.«~, ^.^..-,^»;:,«^^^i'' IBRftRY OF CONGRESS 014 082 750 3 2 » fc